Poetry: Major Methods, parts 1B of 3 :: Free Verse

Free Verse:  Old Masters and New

We’re having a brief concentration this time on the MMO of free verse:  the poet’s means, method, and opportunity, or kairos, as Aristotle called it.

Shaped Verse

The Old Master: Roger McGough, “40 Love”

MMO

Means:  lobbing the words back and forth, just as a tennis ball does.

Method: the shape of a tennis game.

Opportunity: the couple stays together, even though they may bicker, even though they may no longer love each other, they have lost the connection between them (a barrier is there, invisible to us but relevant to them).

The New Master: well, this is an interesting problem.

It’s hard to find contemporary shaped poetry that doesn’t devolve into sentimentality or juvenile wish fulfillment.  Let’s try the Prose Poem.

Carolyn Forché’s “Ancapagari” (found on Poetry Foundation)

In the morning of the tribe this name Ancapagari was given to these mountains. The name, then alive, spread into the world and never returned. Ancapagari: no foot-step ever spoken, no mule deer killed from its foothold, left for dead. Ancapagari opened the stones. Pine roots gripped peak rock with their claws. Water dug into the earth and vanished, boiling up again in another place. The water was bitten by aspen, generations of aspen shot their light colored trunks into space. Ancapagari. At that time, if the whisper was in your mouth, you were lighted.

Now these people are buried. The root-taking, finished. Buried in everything, thousands taken root. The roots swell, nesting. Openings widen for the roots to surface.

They sway within you in steady wind of your breath. You are forever swinging between this being and another, one being and another. There is a word for it crawling in your mouth each night. Speak it.

Ancapagari has circled, returned to these highlands. The yellow pines deathless, the sparrow hawks scull, the waters are going numb. Ancapagari longs to be spoken in each tongue. It is the name of the god who has come from among us.

MMO

Means: four paragraphs.  Fragmented sentences alternated with complete ones.

Method: It looks like any other prose;  however, it reads as poetry, compact ideas with rhetorical repetition and climatic ordering.

Opportunity: the resurgence of life once gone yet never departed, the power of the cyclical eternal to influence us when we allow ourselves to open and “speak it”.

Catalog

The Old Master:  Walt Whitman again. “I Hear America Singing”.

MMO

Means: a list of common people going about their work.

Method: extended lines that briefly describe an array of everyday jobs.

Opportunity: celebration of the everyday worker that makes America great.

Two New Masters: Let’s starT with Maya Angelou’s “Women Work”

MMO

Means: a list of jobs that every married mother must do.

Method: short lines listing the jobs, one after another, until they are all done and the persona can sing / enjoy the free things of life.

Opportunity:  Getting the chores done, the good and the bad, often leaves little time for reflection.  Slow down and enjoy the free things of life: good and bad, sunshine and rain, dew and storm, all necessary to know we are living.  The only things that we can truly call our own are the moments we take to enjoy.

Billy Collins’ “Introduction to Poetry”

MMO

Means: presenting the reactions a poet wants to hear from the audience.

Method: the catalog across stanzas.

Opportunity: Collins wants students to enjoy the poem, not analyze it to death.  Literature classes often over-analyze.  As Archibald MacLeish says, perhaps the poem “should not mean / But be.”

Simple Form

Old Master: Carl Sandburg’s “Bones”

MMO

Means: a dramatic monologue of someone who died at sea.

Method: the speaking voice contrasts the mundane grave with the “song of thunder, crash of sea”.

Opportunity:  if we cannot live an extraordinary life, we can give our bones an extraordinary death.

New Master: Charles Simic’s “Stone”

MMO

Means: a simple imagining of the life of a stone.

Method: three unrhymed stanzas, repetition, anaphora and other devices.

Opportunity:  Like Sandburg’s “Bones”, this poem is about transformation.  Simic, however, imagines the serene existence of the stone only to wonder if it hides a more volatile existence beneath a cold, hard covering ~ as we often encounter with people, the difference between their exterior and interior lives.

Wrapping Up

Coming in November: We look at Blank Verse. Part 2A will introduce considerations with Blank Verse; part 2B will provide more examples.

We’re on the 5ths!  Join us.

More old-style poetry, but with Pure Verse, we can return to SONGS!

Poetry: Major Methods Every Poet Should Know, part 1A of 3

Poetry is SOUND before it is SIGHT.  This is especially true of songs.

Yet in special cases Poetry is SIGHT before it is SOUND.

The typography of the words can capture us visually before the ideas capture us.  If the “shape” of the letter ensnares us, we will stay to read the ideas.

With free verse, it is the SIGHT, the typography, that captures our attention.

Divide to Conquer

The realm of poetry can be divided in two different ways:

1st, the purpose of the poem: lyric (songs of emotion, virtually everything we hear in music), narrative (story songs, lot of the hits by the Eagles: “Lying Eyes” and “Hotel California”), and dramatic (story without exposition, folk ballads like “Lord Randall”).

2nd, the method of the poetic structure:  pure verse, blank verse, and free verse.  It’s these 3 methods that we’ll examine in this series of blogs.

Pure Verse = Rhyme and rhythm:  that’s the poetry we are conditioned to accept.  The poems of childhood and the songs of our everyday life fall into this method.  Even rap music has an expected rhythm (beat, cadence, meter) as well as rhyme.  This is Dolly Parton’s “I will always Love You” or George Harrison’s “What is Life”.

Blank Verse = rhythm without rhyme.  This poetry is usually intellectual.  Think Shakespeare, especially the major dramatic speeches:  Macbeth’s “Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow” and Hamlet’s “What a piece of work man is”.  Think Robert Frost at his best and most unexpected, in “Out, Out—” or “Once by the Pacific”.

Free Verse = no rhyme, no rhythm (but plenty of reason).  The poet controls the line in other ways than the expected.

A Word on Line Structures

Songs become memorable when key elements are emphasized.  Emphasis through unusual punctuation and capitalization are not acceptable means for our minds unless our minds truly love puzzles.

*Emily Dickinson and e.e.cummings break the punctuation and caps “rule”, but they are purposeful with their rule-breaking.  It’s not communication anarchy.

Free Verse MMO

While free of rhyme and rhythm, free verse by master poets—and if we want our poetry memorable, we learn from the mastera—gives us Means, Motives, and Opportunities for structuring our poems.

Once we see the MMO in action, we discover free verse is as highly structured as the pure and blank verse forms.

Shaped Verse

The Old Master:  George Herbert’s “Easter Wings”

A first practitioner of shaped verse, Herbert did follow a rhyming pattern.  He worked in the early 1600s.  How’s that for age?

Our souls, in celebration of the Resurrection at Easter, are enabled to fly up to Heaven.

The New Master: Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s “Constantly Risking Absurdity”

Ferlinghetti reminds us that poets are performers, risking their public acceptance just as a trapeze artist does.  Both work without a safety net.  Ferlinghetti’s structure mimics the acrobatic performance as the words walk back and forth across the taut lines of verse.

Catalog

The Old Master: Walt Whitman’s “Song of Myself 26” (selected series of lines)

Now I will do nothing but listen,
To accrue what I hear into this song, to let sounds contribute toward it.

I hear bravuras of birds, bustle of growing wheat, gossip of flames, clack of sticks cooking my meals,
I hear the sound I love, the sound of the human voice,
I hear all sounds running together, combined, fused or following,
Sounds of the city and sounds out of the city, sounds of the day and night,
Talkative young ones to those that like them, the loud laugh of work-people at their meals,
The angry base of disjointed friendship, the faint tones of the sick,
The judge with hands tight to the desk, his pallid lips pronoun-cing a death-sentence,
The heave’e’yo of stevedores unlading ships by the wharves, the refrain of the anchor-lifters,
The ring of alarm-bells, the cry of fire, the whirr of swift-streak-ing engines and hose-carts with premonitory tinkles and color’d lights,
The steam-whistle, the solid roll of the train of approaching car. . . .

The New Master: Gwendolyn Brooks’ “We real cool”

We real cool
The Pool Players.
Seven at the Golden Shovel.

We real cool. We
Left school. We

Lurk late. We
Strike straight. We

Sing sin. We
Thin gin. We

Jazz June. We
Die soon.

Simple Form :: Is anything ever simple?

The Old Master:  Stephen Crane’s “The Wayfarer”

The wayfarer,
Perceiving the pathway to truth,
Was struck with astonishment.
It was thickly grown with weeds.
“Ha,” he said,
“I see that none has passed here
In a long time.”
Later he saw that each weed
Was a singular knife.
“Well,” he mumbled at last,
“Doubtless there are other roads.”

The New Master: Arcelis Girmay’s “Elegy”

What to do with this knowledge
that our living is not guaranteed?

Perhaps one day you touch the young branch
of something beautiful. & it grows & grows
despite your birthdays & the death certificate,
& it one day shades the heads of something beautiful
or makes itself useful to the nest. Walk out
of your house, then, believing in this.
Nothing else matters.

All above us is the touching
of strangers & parrots,
some of them human,
some of them not human.

Listen to me. I am telling you
a true thing. This is the only kingdom.

Aracelis Girmay, “Elegy” from Kingdom Animalia. Copyright © 2011 by Aracelis Girmay.   From Poetry Foundation: poetryfoundation.org/poems/56716/elegy-56d2397a11e87

Wrapping Up

When we examine these poems, we see interconnections of ideas through the shape, through the catalog, through repetition, and through other rhetorical techniques.  In addition to other techniques, Whitman’s catalog uses anaphora, Brooks plays with alliteration, Crane writes a narrative, and Girmay uses repetition and typography and contrast.

Our next blog, 1B of 3, will provide another glimpse of old and new masters working in free verse.

Join us for Carl Sandburg, Charles Simic, Carolyn Forche, and others.

We’re on the 5ths!

New Cover for an Old Book

Head over to Writers Ink Books for the story behind the new cover for A Game of Secrets by M.A. Lee >> Click here to read

A Tempting Tangle with Smugglers and Spies

Kate Charteris never expected to become a damsel in distress, yet she becomes just that when she must flee her cousin’s unwanted attentions.  While she might be alone in Regency England, her parents deceased and family friends still with Wellington’s army in Portugal and Spain, she is no damsel who faints at the first sight of a dragon-like trouble.

On the hunt for the lair of smugglers and spies for Napoleon, Tony Farraday never expected to fall hard for a damsel not quite in distress.  He collides with Kate on a city street and feels instant attraction.  Yet Kate must catch the mail coach before it leaves, and Tony still needs orders from the spycatcher Giles Hargreaves.

Neither expects to meet again at a run-down inn on the English coast.  On a crumbling cliffside, they vow to keep each other’s secrets and pretend to be strangers.  Yet that initial spark of attraction catches flame strongly and obviously, jeopardizing their pretense.

When they realize they are in the smugglers’ very lair, Tony must warn his friend Hargreaves.  The French spy arrives, demanding immediate passage across the Channel to take vital information to Napoleon.  Kate befriends the spy, but she is playing a dangerous game.  Tony hopes to delay the spy long enough for Hargreaves to arrest her and the smugglers—only to be caught in a trap.  When Kate’s cousin arrives, can she evade him long enough to help Tony escape?  Or have they both lost this Game of Secrets?

A sweet Regency historical romance.

A Game of Secrets is a complete novel without a cliff-hanger, but the danger continues in A Game of Spies.