For Marianne and others of us fighting trolls in our writing, we’ll take active help in our battles.
One powerful weapon in our word processing software can do more than make our words look pretty. A special element in the software can not only check spelling and grammar but also determine the number of passive sentences.
While passive sentences can be necessary trolls, usually we writers fight to keep our sentences active. Active subjects create power on the page.
This gadgety element gives you the Reading Ease for any document.
Newspapers are often written at a 6th grade reading level.
Consider these authors:
Cormac McCarthy writes at a 5th grade level.
J.K. Rowling = The first Harry Potter is close to 6th grade. The last is close to 8th grade.
Stephen King = 6th grade level.
J.R.R. Tolkien = 6th.
John Grisham = 6th.
Tolstoy = 8th.
Michael Crichton = close to 9th.
The Affordable Care Act = 12th.
KJV Bible >> This can cause controversy because several websites list everywhere from 5.8 grade to 12th. That might occur because some books are easier than others: Compare Ecclesiastes to Isaiah.
I don’t remember who first said this wonderful statement, and the internet failed my search. (Surprise! The internet does NOT have all the answers.) But . . .
“It doesn’t take a genius to make something hard. It takes a genius to make something easy.”
Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea is a wonderfully rich allegory with symbolic dreams and lyrical passages . . . and is written at a 4th grade reading level.
Quality of writing is not in “big words”. Obfuscation obscures; clarity reveals.
Quality of writing is in approach, perspective, craft. Remember, we are in writing to communicate.
The next time you wonder if you are “showing off” rather than communicating, find out by checking the reading level.
Step 1: Go to FILE > OPTIONS.
Step 2: Select PROOFING.
Step 3: Click the box “Show Readability Statistics” so that it has a check mark.
Step 4: Click OK.
You are almost ready to rock.
Step 5: In the ribbon across the top, select REVIEW.
Step 6: To the far left is a big check mark and the words “Spelling & Grammar”. Click it.
Run the proofing check, accepting or ignoring changes as the software offers it.
When complete, you will have a pop-up window called “Readability Statistics” with all sorts of information.
Number of words, paragraphs, sentences.
Words per sentence. Characters per word.
Most importantly, you will have the percentage of Passive Sentences, Reading Ease, and Grade Level.
Have fun checking your writing.
And don’t strive for a scholarly, erudite tone unless you want to impress a college professor.
Definition 1: relating to a virus, a disease that poisons the system.
Definition 2: relating to any media that circulates widely on the web.
Late April 2016: a video blog (vlog) from The Guardian earned the “viral” cachet when the presenting editor inferred that grammar rules are made by the white, highly-educated segment of the population, and thus grammar rules are designed to be prejudiced against those who break them.
What? Wait. Standard English rules are prejudiced?
Actually, what the vlog editor inferred is that grammar helps communication, but some people become snobs when applying the rules.
Look, here it is, in 13 Points.
Communication is both non-verbal and verbal, and verbal means spoken and written.
The audience needs guides to follow communication.
Those guides help the audience “read” spoken and written communication.
The guides became standardized into common rules to assist communication.
Certain rules that actually confuse communication became imposed on the English language. One confusing rule was made famous by Winston Churchill. About the preposition at the end of sentences, he said, “That is a rule up with which I will not put.”
The common rules became a mark of the highly-educated ~~ they usually were also the wealthy in the established (predominant) culture. Business primarily wants those who present the best image (non-verbal communication) to their clientele.
In order to help those not in the upper echelons of society, the teaching of the common rules became a mainstay of the curriculum. [Originally, rhetoric (communicating to persuade) was the mainstay.] Thus, the teaching of the rules was designed to assist the lower strata of society escape dead-end jobs.
Imposition of the grammar rules by certain grammar snobs gave grammar phobia to the many who were learning the rules.
We have forgotten that the rules are guides for communication—and that communication creates community through commonality.
Commonality is necessary for community and is not antagonistic to diversity.
Diversity in communication keeps the audience interested.
Too much diversity, however, may obscure communication.
Any communicator’s believability (credibility, ethos) is based on how well s/he communicates.
Did you notice that the presenter explained her points in Standard English with an upper class accent and fully rounded tones?
Even as she debunked grammar snobbery, she proves she is a proponent of grammar snobbery.
This vlog from The Guardian reinforces the blogs on Writers’ Ink Books: grammar should not disrupt communication. We use grammar to increase communication, not to browbeat others.
As writers, we use grammar to manipulate our readers’ impressions of our works.
We can enchant with lyricism.
We can convert with suasion.
We can entertain.
Or we can turn off our reader.
Look at the vlog. Would you believe this denunciation of grammar snobbery if she broke numerous grammar rules? Or is she more persuasive because she follows the grammar rules?
Ah, we agree with her that grammar snobbery is wrong even as she disproves her own points.
The 13th Warrior. The scariest woman in all literature. The Hobbit.
Dudley Dooright. 5 Stages of the Hero . . . and the Monster. Jurassic Park, in all its iterations.
What does this oddly-matched list have in common? All have origins with the ancient Greeks and Romans.
The first writers developed techniques to influence their audiences. Through an early look at what worked and what didn’t, they laid the foundation for writers today. Many techniques of these old geeky Greeks are still in use, re-packaged as glittery infographics and Wham-Pow webinars, three-point seminars and exclusive insights to Buy Now!
Old Geeky Greeks: Write Stories with Ancient Techniques presents techniques such as the Blood Tragedy and dulce etutile in a clear, organized method for writers who want to write rather than invest hours getting three snippets of information.
Chapters in OGG cover understanding characters to the five stages that established the modern protagonist from the ancient hero.
Aristotle’s requirements for plot precede a survey of the oldest plot formula, the Blood (or Revenge) Tragedy.
Concepts such as in medias res and dulce et utile can help writers solve sticky problems and develop new ideas.
Old Geeky Greeks (and Romans) tried to understand the writing sense that emerged from the chaos. They looked at successful plays and other story-telling methods to determine what influenced the audience.
Which characters were still talked about weeks and months after a performance? Which play structures failed—and which were consistently winners? Which ideas helped writers develop their celebrated writings?
Writers today are still searching for the answers to these questions.
The bright minds of Classical Antiquity first explored these questions, and their answers are applicable in the age of the internet, open-source software, special effects, and infographics.
Aristotle, Seneca, Plato, Horace, and many other ancient geeks have their ideas matched to Harry Potter, Avatar, Last of the Mohicans, and Shakespeare.
Whether we’re writing novels or plays, blogs or non-fiction, poems and songs, Old Geeky Greeks is a seminar in 28,000 words.
Do you need a little manuscript guidance for electronic publication? Here are two lists you need to use as a checklist.
1. You know you need a title. Did you know you also need a Boilerplate?
The boilerplate is a unit of writing to be re-used over and over without change. You will find it on the back side of the title page in any printed book and on the page following the title in any electronic book.
A boilerplate gives copyright information as well as any other publication information. Who controls your copyright? Who can reproduce this work–if anyone at all–with permission from you? While this statement is such standard procedure, you probably have never noticed it. Use any book to determine what you need to have.
2. Beneath the boilerplate you should have a disclaimer: “All characters in this book are fictitious. . . .”
This protective statement lets people know you used your imagination. While your inciting situation might be “ripped from the headlines”, the book itself is the work of your brain, not a dry statement of the facts.
3. Acknowledgement / Dedication: Did someone give you help? Proofreader? Cover designer? Or even just watched the babies so you could write? Thank them.
As William Shakespeare said, “So long as men can breathe and eyes can see, / So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.” Your dedication gives them life as long as your acknowledgement page is available.
4. Other Books by You: This list is shameless self-promotion. Remember, always vote for yourself.
In a printed book this list occurs before the title page. In electronic, it is best after the title page or (even better) at the end of the manuscript.
Many indie writers also run promotions for their other books by providing blurbs (abbreviated summaries).
5. Table of Contents
In any good word software, you can locate the table of contents in the references toolbar. Really great software allows the TOC to be hyperlinked. Readers can click the TOC to go anywhere in your book.
Yes, I myself once thought the TOC a waste of time. With electronic publishing and hyperlink ability, I have been proven wrong. Thanks to all the people who pointed it out.
6. Chapter Headings and Page Breaks
Use headings in your home toolbar to set up your chapter headings. The TOC will pick up on the common headings to create itself.
Page breaks are another matter. You don’t want these in the TOC. Devise a method to show the switch of scene or character viewpoint within a chapter. A variety of symbols abound; whichever you select, be uniform.
7. A Book of your book :: What?
A Book of your book is a Master Book. In it you keep all of your background work: character information, plot guides, special information, maps, images, etc.
This Master Book will guide you whenever you decide to return to your manuscript. Deciding to write a sequel? The Master Book should have everything you need.
Much of the information in the Master Book will never make it into your book. That’s as it should be. We want to avoid info-dump.
Simple Procedure for Preparing a Manuscript to be Published on Kindle
Go for 10!
1.Read the article above entitled “7 Common Elements of a Book Manuscript”, and make sure your MS has these.
2. Use the most common 10 fonts: Times New Roman, Arial, Baskerville, Courier, Georgia, Helvetica, Lucida Sans, Palatino, Trebuchet, and Verdana.
We all have our favorite fonts. Some of these (Courier) are downright ugly. While you may prefer a different font, these 10 create no problems across multiple platforms when reading on a narrow or small screen.
3.Avoid fancy & charming glyphs and special images.
Even the smallest image adds to the size of the file you will upload. Amazon KDP has special content that you can read which will explain this in more detail.
A few–such as those for chapter headings–do add grace to the MS. Be certain that their format is acceptable.
If you are desperate to add special touches, consult a book designer who will understand not only the acceptable types of image files but also how large such files can be–as well as how image files can disrupt the flow of your words.
4. Use Page Break for any new section.
Page Break to reach the TOC. Page Break to reach Chapter 1. And Page Break to reach Chapter 2. etc.
Otherwise, let the text flow on by itself.
5. And let the text flow on by itself.
Don’t use “enter” when you reach the end of a line on your computer screen. Only hit “enter” on the keyboard when you want a new paragraph. Your software will default to have the next paragraph indent itself: let it.
6. Turn off these three things in the “Paragraph Settings”:
Check the box that says “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same type”. You only have spaces between paragraphs in business documents. Yes, I know your software automatically defaults to this. Your software, however, was developed for business, not for writers in the entertainment industry.
At the top of that pop-up window, select “Line and Page Breaks”. Also on that screen, UNcheck “widow/orphan control” and “keep with next”. These two UNchecks will prevent big gaps at the bottom of some of your pages.
7. Two spaces after a period or one?
This simple question still causes controversy. Pick which way you want, and stick with it.
The use of two spaces does create a larger gap between sentences. When reading on a narrow / small screen, this can look awkward. Most writers have gone to one space between sentences.
However, have you noticed that when you text or email, if you double-space, the period automatically inserts itself? Two spaces may be coming back.
8. Using Grammar / Spell Check is not enough. Print out and proofread your manuscript.
And don’t read from the screen.
As sophisticated as current software is, it is still not great. Believe it or not, you will find more errors on a sheet of paper than you will on a computer screen.
If you don’t feel up to the task, hire a proofreader. (Shameless promotion :: Writers’ Ink has a proofreading service.) Whatever you do, don’t let a MS out there with “vial” when you mean “vile”. Please. I’m serious. It’s a huge turn-off to your reader.
9. Find out your Readability Statistics and Passive Sentence Percentages.
Go to File > Options > Proofing and check the box that says “Readability Statistics”. After you run a grammar / spell check (and yes, I would still do this. The machine does catch some things.), a window will pop up that will tell you the MS’s reading level and number of passive sentences.
Most readers are comfortable at a 7th to 9th grade reading level. The majority of American newspapers were once geared to a 6th grade reading level. That’s not a bad thing. You want to reach as many people as possible. Don’t impress your reader with BIG words; impress them with your IDEAS.
Passive sentences are to be avoided. Try to keep them below 15%.
10. Save your eyes.
They’re the windows to your future as a writer.
You are working an arms-length between eyes and screen, right?
Get amber-tinted glasses or turn on “Night Shade”; save the cones and rods in your eyes. Plenty of evidence has emerged that blue-tinted light (especially at night) not only disrupts sleep but causes problems for your eyes’ functioning. The amber helps to prevent that blurring which represents damage from over-strain.
And use the magnification in your software. Ramp the size of the text on screen up as far as you need to see without strain.
Finally, take breaks from staring at the screen. 15 minutes for every 45. If you can’t find anything to do during that time, take a walk. Not only your eyes but also your tush will thank you.
While no one can guarantee to catch 100% of errors, Writers’ Ink has over 35 years of experience in catching mistakes in manuscripts. Our proofreading and editing services will not only find errors you may not have seen but also plot holes and character discrepancies.
Provide us with a copy of your MS*. Priced depending on the length, we will proofread and correct mistakes in spelling, usage, and most punctuation. (Since some punctuation is a matter of style or a reading assistance, we will not remove these marks of punctuation.)
Proofreading finds simple errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, usage, and simple grammar errors. We understand that dialogue may not be grammatically correct.
Proofreading is only done for manuscripts that are considered complete.
If, while proofreading, we discover content editing problems, we will notify you and re-negotiate.
If you wish us to continue with Content Editing, that cost will be applied. Our task will convert to content editor as opposed to proofreader. Content errors will need to be revised prior to the completion of proofreading.
Content Editing looks for plot holes, character discrepancies, and illogical problems (a character on the East Coast who at 7 a.m. calls someone on the West Coast who is eating breakfast on their sunny patio. This is not possible. The West Coast is four hours behind the East Coast. That would be 3 a.m. their time. Writers Ink has seen this problem not picked up by other Content Editors.)
Developmental Editing: for poetry and Non-Fiction only. Even though we are helping you “develop” your writing, we do not ask for credit on the title page. You are the writer; we are looking for ways to improve the ideas you are communicating.
In a poetry series, developmental editing will look for thematic arcs and suggest line structure possibilities. We will note change words although we may suggest such changes. We will consider the sequence of poems in a series. We have over 35 years of analyzing, explicating, and teaching poetry by the masters. We understand that poetry is a special art form.
In Non-Fiction, logical sequence and explanation & elaboration on themes, topics, and subjects will be considered. We have over 40 years writing nonfiction as well as teaching the nonfiction form to students.
Cost of Proofreading
$250.00 for the first 100 pages (standard font, approximately 250-285 words per page, 1-inch margins all around)
$50.00 for each additional 50 pages
For a manuscript of more than 500 pages, please contact us with the completed length for a different price.
Cost of Content (Line) Editing
$300.00 for the first 100 pages
$75.00 for each additional 50 pages
Cost of Developmental Editing for Poetry
$300.00 for 100 pages
$100.00 for each additional 50 pages
*We do not work in the genres of horror, psychological thrillers, and erotica or soft porn.
What attracts the reader’s eye? The image, of course, and wise writers look to graphic artists for guidance with the book cover. Yet how do we draw people to look at the cover in the first place? Have you considered a book trailer?
You can write tens of thousands of words for a manuscript, but you can’t write a short script for a trailer that will be 30 seconds to a minute long. Or you’re too busy with your customers and clients to spend the hours necessary to develop a short clip for your website or Facebook page.
Contract with us.
For books, all you need to do is provide a synopsis / blurb and a few elements on a script questionnaire. For products or services, we will drop by, tour your business, ask a few questions, then head off: Once we have the background information we need, your part of the job is over.
Writers Ink will work in three stages:
First is Stage 1: our preliminary script based on the questionnaire / interview and your provided information. If you want to make suggestions or head us in a different direction, that’s workable. If you want us to go in a different direction, that’s do-able although we may need more information. We will happily cycle back through Stage 1 with you.
Stage 2: We will generate a completed MP4 film file using MS PowerPoint, which we will upload to our YouTube for website. Once it’s up, you can hyperlink to it or download it to your own drive, to a cloud drive, to Facebook, and to your website. We advise having the original in two separate locations. Want it on a flashdrive? $15.00 more (Sorry. Cost of flashdrive.)
Stage 3: Sound makes trailers wonderful. Once you approve the basic MP4 film file, we will select sound files that work with the tone of your novel or atmosphere of your product or service. If you wish to choose your file from audiojungle or Envato Market, you will need to provide us with the location information. Once the file is chosen, we will add the sound file to the MP4 draft.
Cost of Services
Deposit before Stage 1 of the Book Trailer :: $100.00 This deposit will be applied to the total cost. If you want to stop at this point, our generated script becomes your property.
2nd Stage Development of the Trailer / Clip :: MP4 without Sound $215.00 (minus the deposit, the amount is $115.00 more.)
3rd Stage Addition of Sound to the MP4 film file :: $50.00 (location and cost of the sound file included) or $35.00 plus the cost of the sound* file that you located** on audiojungle PLUS the cost of insertion and second manipulation of the MP4 file to work with the sound file).
For all three stages of work, you are paying $265.00. This includes the approved script, development of the film file, and insertion of the sound file, all into an easily accessible form. You are paying for our expertise and our time, and we will provide you a quality product that you can proudly use on your social media platforms.
If you want us to upload the trailer / clip to your website and to your Facebook page, we will be happy to do so for an additional fee.
*Sound files should be located on audiojungle or on Envato Market. If you have licensed copyright access to another sound file of reasonable length, we will try to work with you.
**If you locate the sound file and the cost of that sound file is more than $25.00, the additional cost will be applied to your bill.
What are they? Trailers & Clips are small marketing videos that we can post on Facebook and on our internet sites for people to enjoy.
Videos and clips are a benefit to static websites because people naturally watch what “moves.” Short videos on Facebook always capture attention, especially when they are well-done.
What can I say? I am very intrigued by well-done short videos. I especially enjoy the ones that present books. I slow down in my internet surfing and on Facebook to watch the shorter advertising for certain products and services.
Yet when things with such advertising go wrong, they go very, very wrong. It’s as if the short form exaggerates the problem rather than flashes past it.
How do we avoid the sins of the worst advertising? We have to understand the virtues of the best advertising.
TWO CARDINAL SINS
Sin 1] the trailer or clip that goes too long.
Statistics claim that most people have a 15-30 second attention span. We can stretch this to 45 seconds.
This statistic is true for me. My attention span for book trailers, something that intrigues me, lasts about 35-45 seconds. For the ones that aren’t interesting, I turn off somewhere around 20 seconds. TV commercials affect me in the same manner.
When I started researching book trailers, I found several interesting ones–but the ones that ran a minute and more totally lost me. Totally. Beautiful graphics, enchanting sound, intriguing words–but I clicked out before those trailers where halfway through.
Melissa Marr has a lovely one for Wicked Lovelyby COS Productions. You can see it here:
Marr’s trailer seems to be PERFECT. It runs about 40 seconds.
Sin 2] the NARRATED book trailer.
Please don’t. Voice is such a powerful element when it’s done correctly. Few people do it correctly. It requires pauses and intonation. And the voice itself must be attractive. Unfortunately, most narration for short advertising comes across as either flat or artificial.
Especially do NOT narrate if you are reading the text on the screen. Please ~~ don’t. In the meetings where presenters read aloud their PowerPoints to the participants, everyone cringes. Then we get restless and turn off our attention.
THREE CARDINAL VIRTUES
Study video trailers that you like. What you like about them will be boiled down to three cardinal virtues.
Most people use elements of theirbook cover or logo design for their short advertising. K.M. Weiland does this very well with her book trailer for Dreamlander. Examine the cover, then study how she uses the different parts to create her graphics for the trailer.
For products or services, the company’s logo and the packaging for the product or a stock image depicting the service can be used very similarly to the book cover.
Weiland’s trailer runs over a minute. As interesting as it is, that length is beyond my attention range. Her book seems greatly detailed in plot, however, so the minute-long trailer may be necessary. You can see Weiland’s trailer here:
Limittext. You want to present your protagonists and their opening conflict question OR your product / service and the need it fulfills. Sparking curiosity is also essential. Another blog here details the instructions for creating a script.
Marr’s trailer sparks curiosity very well. Mystery and intrigue are deepened with the simple text that accompanies the images allude to the book cover. Weiland’s trailer also does the curiosity spark very well.
Sketch your 12 key points out and expect to spend the necessary time to polish them to a fine edge. Keeping the word count down will keep the interest level up.
Believe it or not, soundis the trickiest of these three elements.
Sound is so personal. People listen to certain types of music and rarely are eclectic enough to accept other types.
The sound you select should also represent the toneof your work. Heavy metal will rarely work for historical fiction. Preppy pop music will not fit a doctor’s office. Soft piano will not work for epics. Lilting Irish harp doesn’t equate with auto repair.
Sound :: Problems with Voice
Narration, as already noted, can come across flat or artificially dramatic. I personally don’t like it. Neither of the book trailer options I have referenced use narration. However, a nontypical voice or one that has a feature that stands out might possibly work. Might.
“Featured” voices include accents. Should you be tempted by an actor who can do a Scottish accent (or Irish, Cockney or Australian)? After all, you might tell yourself, my book is set in Scotland. I should hire someone–or get someone from the local little theater?
Or you might think, “My customers aren’t rich; they’re just home folks. A little country accent in the narration might go down well.” Well, a country accent might turn-off a lot of customers who think it doesn’t sound “educated”, and it might NOT turn-off customers who like that “folksy” feeling. How can you know? You can’t, not without a survey of every customer you serve.
So stop. Just stop. Will the narrator’s accent take away from the text? Ask yourself this question before you find someone to do a narration for you. Voice is personal. If it’s not just right, it will turn away your viewers. After all, most of Disney’s animated feature flops did not use people with distinctive voices.
If you’re desperate for voice, watch one of Pixar’s animated features. They use voices that work with the characters, not with “big name actors”. Pixar is the whole package. Voices (not actors) are selected for how well their cadence, timbre, and tonal quality match to the characters.
Go enjoy Up, Finding Nemo, andToy Storyfor the nth time. The voices of the primary characters evoke the personality through tonal quality. Ed Asner, Ellen DeGeneres, and Tom Hanks are big-name actors whose voices capture the personalities of the old man, Dory, and Woody. These are FINE actors, not just people with a name.
In my research, I cringed through several narrated trailers. It’s hard to do voice well. Please stop that idea at its birth.
Instrumental music avoids the multiple problems of voice.
But, you ask,where can I get music that is 30 seconds or 45 seconds or 68 seconds long? Try audiojungle.
On the audiojungle website, you can search for music types and for various lengths. (You will first need to determine the length of your trailer before you decide on a music selection.) The cost will range from around $10 to $19 for 30 seconds to a minute. Support these indie musicians, and don’t infringe copyright. They are artists struggling to make a living, just as you are.
So, we decided to create book trailers for everyone here at Writers Ink Books. We all want more promotions for our novels. Book trailers seemed to be the next step. I volunteered, and that was a four-hour learning curve. Sigh.
The four-hour learning curve had nothing to do with the difficulty of computer program. That was me and not the software.
I won’t go into the ins and outs of the software I used (MS MovieMaker) because these rudimentary helps are intended for the general user, and various software programs abound. I picked MS MovieMaker since the program came installed with the version of Microsoft Office that I had. MovieMaker, unfortunately, is no longer supported by Microsoft. If you find the program on your computer or download a version, you will work through the learning curve then find it very simple.
However, I don’t advise venturing into the “no longer supported computer software” world.
In the most recent book trailers, I have used MS PowerPoint without a learning curve; however, I was already extremely familiar with the program. I found it simple to create slides then transfer thepptto a movie form.
In PowerPoint, text manipulation is much easier than it is with MovieMaker. Even though we don’t have a lot of text in our trailers and clips, we do want it to shine.
To see what I have developed so far, here are three videos.
The first video is the one I developed for Edie Roone’s “A Matter of Trust”, with MS MovieMaker, a video following the first two cardinal rules of graphics and text, I hope.
Next is M. A. Lee’s Digging into Death, developed using MS MovieMaker. Finally, here is M.A. Lee’s The Key to Secrets”, with MS PowerPoint, Both of these videos follow the cradinal rules for graphics and text and sound.
Key Fundamentals of the Script for Corporate Clips and Book Trailers
1stKey: ID the Product Being Sold
The world of filmed advertisements can teach us the first important lesson when designing trailers and clips.
A mantra of film advertising is to present the product name 4 to 6 times. When badly done, this repetition can be obnoxious. When well done, it’s not noticeable but has subliminal power.
Product naming is basically creating an identifier for the marketplace.
If your book is part of a series—or a client’s company is part of a greater entity—you have another identifier to use. A trailer or a clip can–in 30 seconds to a minute–intrigue the audience enough to catch their attention and stick in memory.
So, to hit the 7-name rule, we can place the title at the beginning, use the cover image, use the series name, then repeat the title followed once more by the cover image = 5 identifiers.
Telling people how to find the product and then once more repeating the name or series or author name gives us the Perfect 7.
2ndKey: Focus Points
In trailers and clips, we select several methods as our focus points.
Many people use the III-Act / Plot. Some use the key events from Freytag’s Pyramid. For the trailer, it may work better to consider four parts.
Businesses also have a story to tell: about their services or their products. Telling a story catches attention faster than a dry list of details.
When we add music, we create another unconscious connection. Music—even in short trailers and clips—seems to develop through its own three- or four-step progress: opening interest, the exposition (exposing) of the primary melodies (your characters), the development of the primaries (re-developed and intermingled), and the recapitulation (the primaries strengthened to a crescendo / the climax).
adapting to a Video trailer and corporate clip:
1st¼= introduction: set up and characters and suspense
A] Start with an identifier: title or series name or cover image.
B] Give a quick glimpse of the story / service / product: keep interest level high. These are concepts, single words or phrases. Consider elements of setting or conflict creators.
C] Hook the audience. Present the characters: characters create connections. Or present the purpose of the product or service.
2nd¼ is the Midpoint = characters in action with the plot and each other OR service / product fulfilling a need
D] A sentence for each protagonist (service) with their problematic situation or driving goal. Select only the protagonist or the hero & heroine; strong secondary characters do not drive the story. For services and products, we are locating the driving need that developed the item and discovering its significance in the marketplace. Whether book, service, or product, this part may take two or more slides.
3rd¼ = dilemma that begins driving to the end
E] What problem do the protagonists encounter? The dilemma should present the danger these characters are in. Or how does the business present the product / service in a way that no one else does?
4th¼ = the question that must be resolved
F] The conflict question that drives to the story’s end. Capture the tension in the last quarter of the book without revealing anything that happens. We adapt this to business by presenting the expertise this business offers.
3rdKey: Keep the Script Clipped and Short
Now is not the time to be verbose. Now is the time to cut. Trailers and Clips are intended to be fast impressions.
Concepts should flash. Sentences should intrigue. If these two points—flash and intrigue—are not working, then nothing else will shine.
I used to hate to write a short script for my novels. How can a writer reduce 85,000 or 100,000 words to five little sentences?
Do it. Cut it.
Cut it shorter. And cut out extraneous words.
Cut verb phrases to the verb alone (“will be fighting” >> “fight”). Remove adjectives and prepositional phrases.
This is not the time to dress up the writing. Give the bones of the story or service or product: it’s the idea that first intrigued you before you fleshed out that skeleton and gave it heart and muscles.
Cut it to the bare bones.
4thKey: Meld Visual with Verbal
Your verbals will benefit from intercutting with visuals.
Examine your cover. A realistic cover should provide two or three elements that can be cropped and manipulated. A good cover designer will create an evocative cover that enables aesthetic cropping.
An exceptional cover designer will provide banner alternatives for your cover image, to use for Facebook or Google or Twitter or bookmarks. These alternatives can be used in your book trailer.
For Products or Services
We’re combining the business logo with an image that perfectly matches our focus.
If the logo is too concrete (a headline of title and author and a single graphic, such as a man running), then we can find some images in the public domain that are capture the product’s concrete feel or look (through color, through lines and shading). If your logo is only headline words, images in the public domain will again be beneficial.
WikiMedia Commons has photographs and images in the public domain. Search and see. Places like ShutterStock offer licensed photographic and computer-drawn images for a $$$ fee for a single image. Expect to pay for good quality, and you will never be disappointed.
Whether Trailers or Clips ~
You should anticipate showing your image at the beginning and end of the trailer. Expect to use one or two more visuals (cropped images or the banner), depending on the length of your trailer.
Using text over the images cropped from your design is also possible. It takes careful positioning. White words over pale background OR black words over dark background cannot be seen. Your first ventures into film editing may be benefited by not placing text over image.
5thKey: Shaping It
Here is a template that will create a trailer running 30 to 45 seconds, long enough to snare interest, not so long that the audience rolls their eyes.
The items grouped in threes can be arranged within that section. I do not advise moving them out of that section.
1st identifier, verbal or visual
2nd identifier, verbal or visual (cover image)
Quick glimpse of story / product / service
Item introduction (one or two slides/cards)
Visual of characters on cover (or logo / product) or an abstract visual or a social media banner
Problematic Situation / Driving Goal or Need that Product / Service fulfills (going to Midpoint of book or the customer’s need for the product)
Another visual from the cover or logo—focusing on a danger or dramatic element
Dilemma (see E] above)
Major Question (F] )
Cover/product image/ logo and location to find. If the novel is part of a series, then state the author and the series on a separate slide/card. If the product is available in other places besides the business, state that. If the service is online as well as at a brick-and-mortar, promote that flexibility.
6thKey: Timing of the Trailers and Clips
Don’t linger too long on any one slide/card.
Figure out the timing for each slide by reading all the words aloud. We read aloud more slowly than we read silently. That reading aloud will take into consideration those who do not read as rapidly.
Your visuals (unless you want them to be subliminal) should not flash past. Give your audience a chance to see but again do not linger.
A rich cover image would demand as much time as verbal slide/card. Consider each element of a rich image as a long phrase to be read, and adjust your timing appropriately.
If your viewers want a longer look, they can re-watch your trailer. It is better to have them re-watch it than turn it off because they’re bored.
7th Key: Sound for Trailers and Clips
Work out the timing of your slides before you look for your background music. While music is powerful, it will not sell your book. Do not find the music then figure out the timing for the slides.
When you have a basic timing for your slides, look for a musical clip with that time frame (from somewhere like audiojungle https://audiojungle.net/ or Envato https://envato.com/index.html ). On those sites, you can run a search based on time (thirty seconds or :30 seconds)
The opening sounds are as important as the closing ones. The opening should grab attention but not startle. Then music should gradually build.
The climax of the music should–hopefully–coincide with your Major Question (Slide/Card 9).
The music should then trail off as the trailer presents the last cover image and the location for purchase.
Once you add the sound file to your trailer, adjust the length of the slides accordingly to end at the same time. The music should die out on your last slide/card.
CAVEAT: With trailers and clips, you can tinker your way to insanity trying to get the sounds’ crescendos and decrescendos to match exactly. Don’t.
Sound should capture the essence.
Powerful epic scores work with action-adventure and epic heroes, strong engines and manufacturing.
Piano and solo violins or cellos work with stories centered on relationship angst as well as office services that create tranquility for the client (a CPA handling taxes, for example). Look for the romantic tag.
For mysteries or products and services that fulfill needs, music with the theme of cinematic works well.
Tags that are corporate and uplifting work when celebrating a business or service that changes people’s lives. Motivational books fit this tag.
A Special Note for Video Trailers: If your setting is strong—in Morocco or Greece or China—the music evocative of that culture will create intrigue. Be careful: the music should not dominate; it should support. Listen to several files before finalizing your purchase.
Your comments about our A Game of Secrets trailer will be appreciated. If you would like assistance in creating a clipped script or a book trailer, please contact us for pricing options, dependent on the number of slides you wish to generate or the length of the book trailer you would like to have.
The font creator. He was on vacation, and now he has to deal with this as soon as he returns home. He thought he had protected himself. After all, the licensing agreement for his original font states that the font cannot be trademarked.
The other indie authors who have been writing and writing, who have books using “cocky” and have published these books long before that indie author (who shall remain nameless) did and have now been threatened by her with Cease and Desist letters.
The other indie authors, frightened by the C & D, who have taken down their books and lost potential sales.
The other indie authors, frightened by the C & D, who burned their swag for their books and are now realizing that the first indie author’s trademark claim will not hold up.
More indie authors who had their books and reviews taken down by Amazon. In taking down the books, Amazon thought it was in compliance with an official trademark.
Amazon, which has now discovered that it was NOT in compliance. The trademark issue is not resolved since the trademark could 1] not be issued on the single word “cocky” and 2] not be issued on a font that was not original to the indie author who trademarked “cocky” in that font. (See the font creator comment above)
Still more indie authors who have weighed in with reasonable logic.
And who are now being threatened with bad reviews by the indie author’s readers.
The indie authors who have now hesitated in their creative process.
I think the only people who must be celebrating are the vultures who thrive on train wrecks . . .
And the trad publishing world, eager to see brakes being applied in the indie publishing world.
1. Write the best book possible.
2. Know the vultures are out there. Know what you can and cannot do to combat the vultures. Even if you try to stop them, they will still be out there, swirling around, seeking who they may devour.
3. Know the Biz itself has problems and always will. Nothing is perfect.
4. Be kind to your readers and your fellow authors who are also struggling.
5. Consult with other pros–not family, not friends, not readers–before you start the engine on that train.