Memorial Day and Flag Day are commemorative occasions just ripe for a poet. While many are addicted to Open Mic nights, these public ceremonies will stretch any writer’s abilities.
The 5/5 blog presents the 2 Chief Reasons to write and perform occasional poetry:
adhere to audience requirements.
keep to the 4 Requirements of Song.
Now let me add a 3rd:
3] manipulate structure to stand out. Poets who do so can provide copies of their poems to participants. It’s like free publicity. “All politics is local”, 1930’s newspapermen said, and word-of-mouth is the best marketing.
Also in the 5/5 blog, is a brief mention of the inaugural poems of Maya Angelou and Robert Frost. She gives us a poem as sprawling as American cities while his “The Gift Outright” is tightly focused and structured. For the audience, this is the difference between a 30-minute speech and a 5-minute one.
It’s the Gettysburg Address that we know and love, not the hour-long speech that preceded it.
Craft the poem well, and it gains power to reach into the ages.
3 Poems for a Patriotic Occasion
Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier”
Memorial Day is when we recognize and thank the sacrifice of those who died for the freedoms we may not deserve.Brooke gives us a sonnet unannounced.
The opening octet presents to us the loss, ending with the sadly ironic “suns of home” for England’s dead sons buried away from home.
The sestet presents the gain and the reason for the sacrifice.
Death arouses emotion, but Brooke asks us to THINK. In each stanza, he reminds us of the purpose.
Brooke himself died in WWI. The Great War to end all wars, they called it. And it was not and never will be, as long as human nature is what it is.
Gwendolyn Brooks’ “the sonnet-ballad”
Like Brooke, Brooks writes another sonnet, yet hers is also a ballad. The ballad has the three subject matters of love, betrayal, and death. What is more appropriate for a poem exhibiting the grief of those on the homefront?
As the speaker mourns her soldier gone, she reminds of the sacrifices of those on the home front, feeling betrayed by the death of their beloved.
Particular phrases that haunt us, as the speaker is haunted by her loss, are “my lover’s tallness” and “an empty heart-cup”, the knowledge that her lover had to “court / Coquettish death”, and the powerful opening and closing with the same line, an obsessive repetition of grief.
Carl Sandburg’s “Grass”
With “Grass”, Sandburg is experimenting with poetic line.
Austerlitz, Waterloo, Gettysburg, Ypres, and Verdun:: important battlefields of the past. Ground on which lay slaughtered soldiers. Carcasses piled high until burial. Death strips away humanity, and the very indifference of the grass only increases the horror.
Just as the veterans who survive are horrified by those of us who do not understand the sacrifices that freedom requires.
Of these three poems, “Grass” reads the most naturally. Standing at a podium, the natural flow of words is extremely important.
We must never forget that art is not a form of propaganda; it is a form of truth. ~` John F. Kennedy.
On the 15th of June we look at poems for the occasion of Father’s Day. Join us.
Graduation and Wedding and many other types of days.
For poets seeking an audience, these occasions offer multiple opportunities to practice craft.
Poetic Occasions: 2 Chief Reminders
1] For a poet writing an occasional poem, the most important remembrance is that the audience controls the writing. Occasions require poets to stretch their abilities without causing deliberate offense to the audience.
2] The poet also needs to remember the 4 Requirements of Song. The writing must be heartfelt without being smarmy. Powerful lines and strong imagery must keep the audience engaged: a listening-only audience will break attention faster than a reading one. Rhetorical devices that emphasize points are especially necessary as they help the audience “hear” the ideas through repetition and climactic ordering.
♥ Maya Angelou’s inaugural “On the Pulse of the Morning” and Robert Frost’s “The Gift Outright” are perfect examples (one long and sprawling free verse, the other 16 tightly constructed lines).
Here are 2 + 1 poems for Mother’s Day (the 1 is a “just because”) with the reasons they work so well.
Of course, you can always fall back on a greeting card.
Li-Young Lee & the Water of Time
I Ask My Mother to Sing
Li-Young Lee presents the connection of past to present to future, something mothers do for their children almost unconsciously. Mothers ground their children with who they are and who they come from even as they encourage who they will become.
Lee celebrates this ability. The women’s joy comes across in the second line—then Lee sidesteps the typical encounter of a poem with a mother in it—much as Langston Hughes did with “Mother to Son”. The second stanza has the readers wishing that they knew this song.
It’s the third stanza, however, that contains the most power: waterlilies like a bamboo fountain. Soothing serenity.
And then Lee has done something wonderful with the title, usually only glanced at, here it is a necessary part, pouring us into the poem, just as the waterlilies into the next and the next and then pour us out of the poem.
Three stanzas, unrhymed, with very little tying the poem together—yet still with a tranquility that draws us back and back.
George Barker’s Occasion for his Mother
Sonnet, Barker announces in the title, and most of us wouldn’t have noticed if he had not announced it.
The first line sounds like the Mother’s Day greeting card. Surprise comes in the third line. No woman wants to be described “as huge as Asia”. “Seismic with laughter”, yes. Barker gives us the reality of his mother. He doesn’t gild the lily, for it is not the pretty image that makes up the mother he loves. She is a woman who helps the weak and hurt. She is brash yet alluring, fascinating and courageous.
His mother has her weaknesses, but he bolsters her with “all my love” and a reminder of “all her faith” as she copes with a devastating death, punned into the last line.
By now we are studying the poem, re-reading portions, nodding to ourselves as we picture the woman he describes. And closer examination tells us that his rhyming is as atypical as the woman herself.
Surprising poems like Barkers draw us back and back—and isn’t that what we want with our poetry? Readers returning over and again.
My plus-1 occasion poem, which actually fits all occasions: Mothers are known for their advice. Teenagers think it’s nagging. Young adults starting their own path to wisdom begin to see the wisdom that flows from the mother. Her advice may be oft-repeated until we understand the simplicity of the truth.
Some Advice from a Mother to her Married Son
The answer to do you love me isn’t, I married you, didn’t I? Or, Can’t we discuss this after the ballgame is through? It isn’t, Well that all depends on what you mean by ‘love’. Or even, Come to bed and I’ll prove that I do. The answer isn’t, How can I talk about love when the bacon is burned and the house is an absolute mess and the children are screaming their heads off and I’m going to miss my bus? The answer is yes. The answer is yes. The answer is yes.
Wrapping It Up
Join us on the 25th, just in time for Memorial Day and then Flag Day. We will look at poems on patriotic occasions.
For poetry lovers, we have a series of blogs, Poetry Lessons, guest-hosted by Emily R. Dunn of Writers Ink Books. Visit our page on every 5th (5th, 15th, and 25th) to see which poem has inspired a lesson in thinking and writing.
4 Requirements of Song: “Both Sides Now”
Poetry like “Both Sides Now” came out of the 1960’s social change
movement. Joni Mitchell’s voice seemed simple while it carried a powerful message.
One of her strongest messages came through “Big Yellow Taxi”, hiding a riptide undertow with its obvious ecology and love of trees (Yes, I’m a tree hugger. The bark’s a little rough, though.)
“Both Sides Now” speaks more universally. This version by Judy Collins provides us our lyrics:
Remember the 4 Requirements of Song? Powerful Lines. Strong Imagery. Heart-felt Message. Clear Communication. “Both Sides Now” achieves all four without difficulty.
1st 2 Requirements
The Ages of Mitchell through Powerful Lines and Strong Imagery
Stanza I = Clouds
Clouds represent childhood, when we had the time to lie on our backs and stare at the lazy summer passages and dream about the places we’ll go (as long as the metaphorical fire ants don’t interfere with our imaginings). The shapes in the clouds transport us from our humdrum droning days.
Of course, when big puffy clouds build in, they herald rain (and snow in winter),
metaphors for the things of life that interfere with our “cloud’s illusions”. Years from our childhood, we recall our lost dreams.
And Mitchell’s last line in the refrain—“I really don’t know clouds at all”—becomes especially poignant looking back with the jaded experience of our maturity. The line hints at how we went wrong: we didn’t truly understand what we wanted, what the dream required, and what we would have to sacrifice. When a child dreams of what s/he wants, that child doesn’t understand the devotion necessary.
Stanza 2 = HEA Love
Stanza 2 moves from childhood to young adult and the “dizzy dancing” mysterious glory of love, when everything is possible and nothing interferes.
Unfortunately, life interferes. “Fairy tale” happily-ever-after love rarely lasts.
The glowing first rush of attraction is not sustainable. Hopefully, more than the pheromone-driven rush pulls together a couple. Compatibility keeps the love re-charged; devotion helps it endure life’s slings and arrows.
This persona never gets past the dying of the fairy tale rush. She gives two pieces of advice. The first is a light-hearted mutual parting: “leave ‘em laughing when you go.” The second is for broken hearts: “If you care, don’t let them know.”
Broken dreams and bruised hearts build emotional walls that are difficult to knock down. The persona comments that love is a “give and take”. Is that a mutual exchange? Or does one give while the other takes? When she laments about “love’s illusions”, we understand the reason those relationships never worked.
Stanza 3 = Life and its Changes
How do we go forward with these emotional barricades constructed of the rubble of broken dreams and bruised hearts?
“Tears and fears and feeling proud to say ‘I love you’ right out loud”: only to have our hearts damaged again. After a time, we guard ourselves from further emotional pain. “Dreams and schemes and circus crowds”” only to have our glorious plans fall apart. After several disappointments, we stop pursuing the hard goals. We don’t give up; we just turn aside.
And well-meaning friends see our emotional barriers, see our guarded hearts and discarded plans, and ask why we aren’t reaching out? Have they not faced the same difficulties? Or did they never dream and just contented themselves with life’s first offerings? When that failed, they just shrugged and went to the next. And they “shake their heads, they say ‘I’ve changed’.”
Heartfelt Message: Keep Pursuing the Dream
Mitchell shrugs off the judgments of well-meaning friends. She just wants a balanced “win and lose” life. After all, “something’s lost but something’s gained in living every day.”
And that’s Mitchell’s truth: don’t drift. Happiness and heartaches will occur. Don’t try to understand them. We can never understand the magical mystery of life and its illusions. Just live.
The Poet’s Requirement
Writing “Both Sides Now”
The structure seems simple enough: three stanzas and one refrain, but this refrain changes through incremental repetition, with each change matching its particular stanza.
Incremental repetition repeats the same words at expected times (the entire refrain, in this case) with a slight change. The change occurs with “clouds” then “love” then “life”. Each change represents a different age of life, a clever three stages of life with three wishes for life.
In addition to incremental repetition, Mitchell employs two clever rhetorical devices: the polysyndeton and anaphora.
The polysyndeton stretches out the first line of each stanza, just as childhood, the beginning of love, and the launching into maturity seem to stretch out: I > “Bows and flows of angel hair and ice cream castles in the air”; II > “Moons and Junes and ferris wheels”; and finally III > “Tears and fears and feeling proud….”
The first anaphora occurs at the midpoint of each second stanza line with “I’ve looked”. The sentence then continues with the predominant metaphorical topic of that stanza.
The second anaphora occurs on the third line of each stanza which begins with “But now”. Along with the repetition and the rhyme, these anaphoras tie the stanzas even more tightly.
Summing It Up
“Both Sides Now” is a clever exercise in the Ages of Man with rhetorical devices. Keeping it simple becomes powerful with Joni Mitchell’s talent.
Childhood, youth, and adult: we all have our dreams and disappointments. Mitchell reminds us that life will perform its balancing act. She wants us to look at the even-handed give-and-take of both sides; we gain when we do.
Reality will keep us balanced; the illusions keep us going.
Still in the works because it’s being difficult (and there’s a lesson for any writer: if you don’t succeed, switch gears) > > the Rock Allegory of “Hotel California” with a wink and a nod to Carl Orff’s “O Fortuna!” will post in MidSummer.
Before that, we have the occasions of Mother’s Day and Memorial Day and Flag Day and Father’s Day and Independence Day ~ so we look at consideration when writing Occasional Poems.
For poetry lovers, we have a series of blogs, Poetry Lessons, guest-hosted by Emily R. Dunn of Writers Ink Books. Visit our page on every 5th (5th, 15th, and 25th) to see which poem has inspired a lesson in thinking and writing. We’ll also intersperse news about books.
Riddling Allegories in Music: Carole King’s “Tapestry”
When songs and poems haunt us, enticing us to return over and again, they have served the writer’s purpose: to have us read and re-read their words.
Sometimes the enticement is the beauty of the words or the music or both.
Sometimes the enticement is the emotion and memories that the song or poem evokes.
And sometimes the enticement is the riddling mystery that surrounds the work. We long to decipher the maze of words.
The best writers tell us everything and nothing. They reveal even as they veil.
And thus we have “Tapestry”, the 1971 song and album by Carole King.
A Little History
The album Tapestry is ranked 35th by Rolling Stone for its list of the top 100 albums of all time. It also is second on the Billboard’s longest-running albums list (Number 1 is Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon).
Lyrics here: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/caroleking/tapestry.html and video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiQshgKO6Co
What is an Allegory?
First, an allegory depends upon an extended metaphor. We have a comparison which has multiple points for linkage.
A tapestry creates an image stitched with bits and pieces of different-colored threads. The canvas upon which it is built is blank; the needleworking artist creates the image as she stitches. The threads can be pulled out, removing the created image.
The allegory works by following through the extended metaphor > life = tapestry. However, in an allegory, a story is told. The elements of the story link to the points of the extended metaphor, each as interconnected as the threads in a tapestry.
How to Write a Riddling Allegory
In “Tapestry”, King does not bother with the usual refrain. Each stanza serves a disparate purpose: the first to build the metaphor, the second and third and fourth to work out the parts of the story, the last to connect the story to herself (and us) and conclude the metaphor.
With the allegory creating the obvious writing skill, the song depends upon a simple paired couplet structure for each stanza. The rhyme scheme is the simplest of all, AABB. The last stanza has five lines instead of four (a neat echo to the stanza), but the very last line is a repeat of the last part of the line before.
In the song itself, King chooses to conclude with a piano repetition of the last stanza, unvocalized.
So, a seemingly simple structure for her allegory.
However, King is extremely clever with the elements of her story.
How King Writes a Riddling Allegory
Like the Moonspinners of Greek mythology, the speaker in “Tapestry” is weaving different threads together to create an image of her life. The Fate Clotho spins the thread; her sister Lachesis measures it; their fellow triplet Atropos cuts the length with her dreaded shears.
“My life has been a tapestry of rich and royal hue / An everlasting vision of an ever-changing hue / A wonderful woven magic in bits of blue and gold / A tapestry to see and feel, impossible to hold.”
We are our own Moirai, controllers of our fate. We select the colors for our lives, of “rich and royal hue”. In the paradox of the antithetical repetition “everlasting” and “ever-changing”, we construct meaning in the disparate parts of constancy and change. Our lives seem to push steadily onward even as they alter visibly and invisibly. When we end, our souls continue to a new existence.
This is the magic, the miracles that we don’t recognize.
The last line contains yet another seeming paradox: “A tapestry to feel and see, impossible to hold.” If we can feel it, how can we not hold it in our hands? Ah, we have a dual meaning of feel ~ touch and emotion.
Riddling Starts in the 2nd Stanza
The allegorical story begins in the second stanza with the entrance of the tatterdemalion drifter, each bit and piece symbolic of his wanderings.
“Once, amid the soft silver sadness of the sky / There came a man of fortune, a drifter passing by / He wore a torn and tattered cloth around his leathered hide / A coat of many colors, yellow, green on either side.”
He wears a coat of many colors, like the biblical Joseph, forced to leave his homeland because his brothers sold him into slavery. Joseph had to make the best of his situation—just as we should when we sell ourselves into the slavery of work rather than pursuing our dreams.
Much Mystery in the 3rd Stanza
“He moved with some uncertainty as if we didn’t know / Just what he was there for or where he ought to go / Once he reached for something golden hanging from a tree / And his hand came down, empty.”
This drifter “moved with some uncertainty”: We often don’t understand our purpose. I’m sure Joseph had many years when he wondered why he was where he was. In our pursuit, we reach for a golden item, unnamed, unclassified—yet something which we desire, the ultimate treasure. Like Adam & Eve, eating of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil.
Yet his hand grasps nothing. He reaches for his treasure, reaches for the knowledge of his desire. He hasn’t found it yet. Like the fairy tale of the Enchanted Song Bird in a gilded cage in a tree, we desire songs of love—but how often do we find such love?
King merely hints at this allusion, yet it fits best with her other wide-ranging allusions.
4th Stanza Reveals as it Veils
“Soon, within my tapestry, along the rutted road / He sat down on a river rock and turned into a toad / It seemed that he had fallen under someone’s wicked spell / And I wept to see him suffer, though I didn’t know him well.”
On the rutted road of his journey, the drifter takes his ease on a river rock only to fall victim to a curse. He becomes the frog prince, transformed by a wicked spell—as we all are transformed when our desires are put off, again and again,
Yet who created this wicked spell? Why curse the drifter? Would the curse have fallen on anyone?
Or was it intended for him alone?
And inferred is that he needs his princess, to kiss him and remove the curse. He is trapped in his toad-eous form until he receives a kiss from someone both inherently great and innately kind.
5th Concludes and Continues the Riddling
An unknown figures enters the tapestry, one that the speaker recognizes as a companion even as she questions who he is.
“As I watched in sorrow, there suddenly appeared / A figure grey and ghostly beneath a flowing beard. / In times of deepest darkness I’ve seen him dressed in black. / Now my tapestry’s unraveling; he’s come to take me back / He’s come to take me back.”
Before she can discover, the tapestry and life is unraveling; the Moonspinners’ thread is done.
Riddling to Truth
The Moonspinners who provide the threads to weave the tapestry are from Greek myth. Joseph is biblical while the golden treasure in the tree could be the Enchanted Songbird story from the Orient. The Frog Prince is a European fairytale, and Death—gray and ghostly, sometimes dressed in deepest black—comes from many cultures’ mythologies.
What is this journey to find the greatest treasure of all, a journey that makes us so weary we might fall into a wicked spell of non-pursuit? Is the drifter Perseus, bringing back a gorgon’s head? Is the songbird the golden nightingale that heals the dying emperor? Or is it the golden bird that the young prince seeks, a prince who constantly makes mistakes and needs the fox’s avuncular help?
Like the best of the ancient balladeers, King doesn’t give us all the answers—deliberately, she does not.
These questions keep us returning to decipher the clues she has given us.
Her allegory draws from every where and every when and every what, just as we do.
We don’t have all the answers.
We keep returning to our own story to decipher its clues.
Clues we may never decipher.
Writing Riddling Allegories
When constructing your own poems, play with the idea of the allegory. Set up your extended metaphor, and guide your story through it.
Use a comparison that is universal. When story speaks to everyone in every time, story endures.
Use simple methods to tie your lines together. Use clever methods to develop your story. King is clever with her use of alliteration and allusions to develop her structure and story.
And leave enough clues so that your readers, like Hansel and Gretel, will journey back to your work, over and again.
Coming in Mid Summer ~ the classic Rock Allegory of “Hotel California”
But first, Joni Mitchell’s “Both Sides Now” and then Occasional Poems fill up May and June.
For poetry lovers, we have a series of blogs, Poetry Lessons, guest-hosted by Emily R. Dunn of Writers Ink Books. Starting with 4 Requirements of Song, visit our page on every 5th (5th, 15th, and 25th) to see which poem has inspired a lesson in thinking and writing.
4 Requirements of Song: Paper Cup
In the 3/15 blog on Dolly Parton’s “Wildflowers”, I noted the 4 Requirements of Song: poetry should 1] speak clearly and 2] from the heart. Music-driven poetry should also provide 3] strong lines and 4] powerful imagery.
Jimmy Webb’s 1967 “Paper Cup” fulfills these 4 requirements that elevate poetry over types of communication.
The extended metaphor in Webb’s poem presents a narrowed little world into which we cage ourselves. This world satisfies us with a shower stall, running water, a den, and refrigerated air, bland walls that make our lives easy.
Then Webb turns this life around with its bleached, waxed-paper world. We may thing we’re in the catbird’s seat, but one day we’re “going down the drain” and won’t care, for we have so deadened ourselves to reality that we “feel no pain”. We find “life is kind of / groovy in the gutter”.
Webb tells us that such a life has no purpose; we are living “without a rudder”. We follow the currents of life and never stop to consider what we want, what truth is. The mass declares what is popular and “hot”, and we follow, rat-like, behind the pied piper crowd.
Webb is preaching to us, much as Tyler Perry does with his Madea films.
Madea preaches that people can make us miserable only if we choose to let them do so.
Webb tells us that we may claim freedom, we may shout Freedom!, but all those material possessions just put us in a bland round cage. We are “always looking up” since our lives are nothing extraordinary.
Politics of Poetry
As Percy Shelley said, “Poetry is a mirror” reflecting life. By presenting life, it “awaken[s] and enlarge[s] the mind . . . [to] a 1,000 unapprehended combinations of thought.”
Webb wants us to reflect on what we think life should be by comprehending how bleached-out and bland such a life is. Like Dolly Parton’s “lost in a crowd” Wildflowers, too afraid to pursue their goals, Webb reminds us that a boring constricted life focused on things is no more than living in a gutter.
A better world is available to us. Webb points out to us the problems of merely existing in a mundane world, with distractors that keep us on the rat-race wheel.
Ha! The wheel in the rat’s cage can be turned sideways to be a round cup that imprisons us. At least the rat can look through his bars.
Parton’s “Wildflowers” tells us how we can escape that “common and close” existence. Never forget that we must uproot ourselves from gardens where we will wither and hitch a ride with the wind.