Poetry: Major Methods 3A of 3: Seduced by Pure Verse

Poetry: Major Methods Every Poet Should Know, part 3A of 3

Pure Verse:  Seduced by Rhythm and Rhyme

True poets and wannabies and hacks and newbies all work with Pure Verse.

No matter which of the four writers above, rhyme entices us more and more.  The quick little rhymes affect (and infect) us all the time.

This the last.  We’re going to go fast.  Keep up.

Pure Verse Affects Us ~~ our ear listens for similar keys in pretty much everything.  When the ear hears one similarity, it listens for more.  Advertising uses the Rule of 7, within a single commercial and within a series.

Pure Verse Infects Us ~~ thinking that similarity in sound will make others pay attention, we resort to it over and over.  Rhyme, then, can become not a seducer by a raper of our ear.

Definitions

Pure Verse, remember, is the matching of both rhyme and rhythm within a short work.

Blank Verse is the matching of the rhythm but no matching of rhyme.

Free Verse, which is supposed to be without rhythm and rhyme, uses other methods to tie the poetic lines together.

Problems with Pure Verse

Rhythm

The first thing that a true poet must avoid is the “Rocking Horse Rhythm”:  back and forth, back and forth, back and forth.

Roses are red, violets are blue, sugar is sweet, and so are you.

Rocking Horse Rhythm puts every poem on the level of a nursery rhyme.

Once you know that Emily Dickinson’s poems with 8/6 line structure can be sung to the theme song for “Gilligan’s Isle”, you can’t help but try it with everyone one.

Here’s Gilligan:

“I died for Beauty but was scarce / Adjusted in the Tomb / when one who died for Tru~th / was laid in an adjoining room.”

Geez.  Dickinson’s point gets lost in the gimmick.  Decades of high school students have been ruined by teachers who would rather destroy the point in order to generate a laugh.

How many students will consider a poem about the power of imagination when they are busy mentally singing the poem to “Gilligan”?

“I never saw a Moor / I never saw the Sea / Yet know I how the heather looks / and what a billow be.”  Huh?

How do poets avoid this problem caused by rhythm?

Well, poets can work in the music industry, for music needs strongly rhythmic lines.

Better yet, they can craft such strong words that the rhythm is disguised, as Frost occasionally did:  Contrast “Once by the Pacific” with “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”.

We could say that “Stopping by Woods” uses its strong rhythm, especially with the last two lines of “miles to go before I sleep”, for strong rhythms are associated with sleeping.

Rhyme

How could similar-sounding words at the end of lines create problems?  Sometimes they don’t.

Working with couplets is problematic.  Read the worst poems by hacks and wannabies and newbies, and the problem is quickly evident.

Divided couplets are what poets usually default to:  ABAB or ABBA or some such pattern.

Even poems I love display this problem:

“I think that I shall never see / A poem as lovely as a tree.” ~ Joyce Kilmer

“Whose woods these are I think I know / His house is in the village though / He will not see me stopping here / To watch his woods fill up with snow.” ~ Robert Frost.

See how Frost broke the couplet pattern to create AABA . . . but look at the second stanza:  “My little horse must think it queer / To stop without a farmhouse near / Between the woods and frozen lake / The darkest evening of the year.” BBCB.  And so the poem continues.

“I am not resigned to the shutting away of loving hearts in the hard ground. / So it, and so it will be, for so it has been, time out of mind: / Into the darkness they go, the wise and the lovely.  Crowned / With lilies and with laurel they go; but I am not resigned.” ~ Edna St. Vincent Millay ‘Dirge Without Music”

Millay avoids the close rhyme of her ABAB stanza “ground / mind / crowned / resigned” in two ways.

1]  The length of her lines prevent the close reading of the rhyme.

2] She uses unusual rhymes:  mind / resigned.

Work Carefully with Pure Verse

Sara Teasdale’s “Christmas Carol” gives us a multitude of examples to avoid problems.

  1. Unusual word choices trick our conscious minds into thinking of those rather than the rhyme (even though our subconscious still registers it).
  2. Another method to trick the conscious mind is to invert the order of words. Using inversion helps the mind focus on the words rather than the rhythm.
  3. Use the divided couplet and keep it changing. ABCB DEFE GHIH JKLK MNON PQRQ
  4. An alternating rhythm that reinforces the divided couplet helps: Teasdale’s is iambic tetrameter with iambic trimester.
  5. Notice how the second stanza repeats similar structures but uses contrast: ermine is contrasted with brown/old coats;  gold / had not any gold.  Juxtaposition is a powerful pattern for our minds.  Teasdale sets up the juxtaposition in stanzas 1 and 2.  Then she plays with her contrasting for 3 and 4, showing stronger similarity than difference.
  6. She plays with repeating the primary characters in stanzas 5 and 6. By then, however, she adds in one more element.
  7. That seventh element is Charm. Gets the mommas and children every time.   Awwww.
https://www.poemhunter.com/i/poem_images/139/christmas-carol.jpg
from PoemHunter

Wrapping Up:  Time to Unwrap the Presents

Join us for our last blog of the year, on Christmas Day, for Old Masters and New of Pure Verse.

Poetry: Major Methods 2B of 3 :: Blank Verse MMO

Blank Verse:  Old Masters and New

Remember, we’re examining the poems using MMO:  Means, Methods, Opportunity (Aristotle’s Kairos).  This time we won’t have three different forms to analyze.  Blank Verse only has one form.

Old Master 1:  William Shakespeare

Macbeth’s Famous Speech

Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
Till the last syllable of recorded time,
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle.
Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

Patrick Stewart delivers the best version of this speech in a modern adaptation of the play.  Some prefer Michael Fassbender, but I think that one drags too much (Fassbender taking direction from the word “creeps”, just as his whole 2015 film does.  That thing is slooooooow) while Ian McKellan seems too insouciant.

Shakespeare’s MMO

Means: 4 sentences, each expressing the futility of life.  Remember, this is Macbeth talking, not Shakespeare.  Never consider a character’s words as the writer’s personal philosophy.

Method:  alternating lines of 10 and 11 syllables, with the next to last hitting 12 syllables and the last line hitting 6.  Not for nothing is Shakespeare called genius.  In the world of symbols …

  • 10 represents completion (the completion of Macbeth’s life is drawing close).
  • 11 represents transition (and the greatest transition is death, doubled here as Lady Macbeth to whom he speaks is dead and his own death is rapidly approaching).
  • 12 equals man’s relationship with God (and Macbeth will soon be judged for his crimes).
  • 6 represents doubled mystery (and the greatest mystery is Death, again for Lady M and himself).

Opportunity:  Shakespeare is reminding the audience that everything we do in life will have consequences far reaching into our deaths.  Time may seem to pass slowly … until our own death approaches.  We may never understand our lives;  they may seem no more than a shadow or an idiot’s tale with no meaning ~~ but we must still answer for the sins we commit.

Old Master 2: William Cowper, who brought about a revival of Blank Verse in the late 1700s, just in time for the English Romantics Wordsworth and Coleridge, Shelley and Byron.

A few lines from “Winter Morning Walk”, Book V of The Task:

’Tis liberty alone that gives the flow’r
Of fleeting life its lustre and perfume,
And we are weeds without it. All constraint,
Except what wisdom lays on evil men,
Is evil; hurts the faculties, impedes
Their progress in the road of science; blinds
The eyesight of discov’ry, and begets,
In those that suffer it, a sordid mind
Bestial, a meagre intellect, unfit
To be the tenant of man’s noble form.

Cowper’s MMO

Means: You can hear the intellectual conversation the poet is having in the rhythm of his words.  While Cowper is writing strict Blank Verse (count the syllables, every line is 10), he avoids the rocking-chair beat.  In this section we hear the conversations of the coffee salons of the 1700s, when people discussed the role of man in society and the ills of society in harming man’s soul.

Method: pure Blank Verse, unrhymed which allows the conversational tone.  Only one line appears to have more than 10 syllables, but if we pronounce “bestial” as “beast-al”, we achieve 10.

Opportunity:  Look at Cowper’s theme:  Liberty/Freedom gives life its beauty.  Only those restrictions which prevent evil should be allowed (as in “no murder”).  Cowper believes restrictions hurt us and hurt progress while those who impose those restrictions are narrow and base.

That’s an interesting juxtaposition to Macbeth’s Famous Speech, isn’t it?

New Master 1: Robert Frost

From “Birches”

But I was going to say when Truth broke in
With all her matter-of-fact about the ice-storm
I should prefer to have some boy bend them
As he went out and in to fetch the cows—
Some boy too far from town to learn baseball,
Whose only play was what he found himself,
Summer or winter, and could play alone.
One by one he subdued his father’s trees
By riding them down over and over again
Until he took the stiffness out of them,
And not one but hung limp, not one was left
For him to conquer. He learned all there was
To learn about not launching out too soon
And so not carrying the tree away
Clear to the ground. He always kept his poise
To the top branches, climbing carefully
With the same pains you use to fill a cup
Up to the brim, and even above the brim.
Then he flung outward, feet first, with a swish,
Kicking his way down through the air to the ground.
So was I once myself a swinger of birches.
And so I dream of going back to be.

Frost’s MMO

Means: “Birches” is a long poem, 60 lines, another one of those poems that high school students hate and adults remember with confusion.  This section is the poet addressing his audience:  Remember when you were a child and had fun ~ until Truth broke into your life.  In this, Frost is like Cowper:  restrictions restrict us.  Where’s our freedom, the freedom we had in childhood, the freedom we have lost and dream of regaining?

Method:  Primarily 10 syllables per line, with others that reach 11 and 12.  Curiously enough, the two lines about Truth are 11 and 12 syllables;  check back up to Macbeth for the meanings of those numbers.  See a sly point by Frost?

Opportunity:  It’s an ice storm that bends the trees down, Truth reminds the speaker, but he would rather it were a boy at play.  And while Frost describes the childhood event, he zings us with two truths:  “He learned all there was / To learn about not launching out too soon” and “So was I once myself a swinger of birches / And so I dream of going back to be”.

New Master 2: Wallace Stevens

The Plain Sense of Things

After the leaves have fallen, we return
To a plain sense of things. It is as if
We had come to an end of the imagination,
Inanimate in an inert savoir.

It is difficult even to choose the adjective
For this blank cold, this sadness without cause.
The great structure has become a minor house.
No turban walks across the lessened floors.

The greenhouse never so badly needed paint.
The chimney is fifty years old and slants to one side.
A fantastic effort has failed, a repetition
In a repetitiousness of men and flies.

Yet the absence of the imagination had
Itself to be imagined. The great pond,
The plain sense of it, without reflections, leaves,
Mud, water like dirty glass, expressing silence

Of a sort, silence of a rat come out to see,
The great pond and its waste of the lilies, all this
Had to be imagined as an inevitable knowledge,
Required, as a necessity requires.

Steven’s MMO

Means: 5 stanzas, each presenting an idea: literal, vacuum, need, silence, potential ~ the great flashiness set aside for a time, we have a chance to think and peruse and rebuild, focused on the essentials rather than the amendments.

Method: This is a loose Blank Verse, meaning that most but not all of the lines are 10 syllables.  “Plain Sense” is not conversational, not philosophical.  It is introspection, one of the few times we can point to master poetry and say, “This is what the poet is thinking.”

Opportunity: “Plain Sense” was published in 1954, a year before the poet’s death.  Is he discussing the loss of his imagination, his creativity with poetry?  Is he discussing the drained feeling of every person who has poured every bit of self into a project and sits back after its completion with a sense of emptiness rather than success?  “After the leaves have fallen”, after the work is finished, what do we have?  Is Stevens capturing that moment before the next project seeds itself?

The Irony of Blank Verse

Most writers launching into poetry as a career will avoid the Blank Verse and Pure Verse methods of expressing themselves.  They seek the freedom of Free Verse without realizing that Free Verse is actually bounded by more rules of structure than Blank and Pure Verses are.

Robert Frost shares with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Edna St. Vincent Millay a great benefit that is also a detriment:  all three poets make writing poetry look easy.  Their lines are easily understood and accessible.  They don’t find it necessary to twist the words or show off their snobbery.  They make it look so easy that sometimes we don’t really see what they are doing.

And all three poets, along with Wallace Stevens, work in very structured poetic forms, both line and stanza—and rhyme scheme, as we will consider next month.

Free or Blank or Pure?

While I have a great love of Free Verse, especially the challenging poems by e.e. cummings, writers working in poetry make a great mistake in thinking Free Verse is the best method for their writing.

Let me quote Andrew Hamilton in his review of Robert Shaw’s “Blank Verse”, a review you can find here: link opens in a new window.

“In ‘The Problem of Form’, poet J.V. Cunningham spoke in 1962 of the exhaustion of modernism:  “We have lost the repetitive harmony of the old tradition, and we have not established a new.  We have written to vary or violate the old line, for regularity we feel is meaningless and irregularity meaningful.  But a generation of poets, acting on the principles and practice of significant variation, have at last nothing to vary from.  The last variation is regularity.”

When modern poets abandon the structured verse methods and consider themselves edgy and avant-garde by doing so, they forget the very point that Cunningham made in 1962.  Modernism has created a curious situation in which breaking the rules is considered establishment and following rules is considered anti-establishment: rebellious.

So, if you want to be one of the avant-garde poets, you need to write structured verse.

Walt Whitman is laughing at the irony.

Join us in December as we take our last looks at poetry, the method of Pure Verse.  We’re on the 5ths!

Poetry: Major Methods 2A of 3 :: Blank Verse

Blank Verse

Poets who want to appear “intellectual” (cue the snobbish accent) will use Blank Verse.

See, I’m already limiting my readers who are turning off because I’m using the jargon of educational poetry.

“**”

Okay, first, let me talk about “professors” and “educators” of higher content learning.  (I am using “**” here so you will know I am being sarcastic about these terms.  These people aren’t teachers.  Sorry, back to my point.)

These people run the Advanced Placement level courses in high school and many of the higher level college & university courses (for several years, as an adjunct professor, I had to bow to their strictures).  Some of these “people”—not all of them—act as if the knowledge they have is arcane, open to only the privileged few.  They want to keep their content secret.  They present the information in dribs and drabs wrapped around by multiple distractors, so that only a special few will understand it.

Grrr.  These “people” make me mad.  They made me mad when I was part of them;  they still make me mad.

For example, Math “people” hate John Harold Saxon Jr. :: Saxon biography on Wiki  For years they decried his methods.  Now that he’s dead, they’re stealing his methods.  Oh, I thought those methods were worthless.  Guess not!

Poetry

I want you to understand and enjoy poetry as more than mindless words set to music.  From January of this year to now, I have attempted to present various ideas about poetry in a challenging but not a complicated manner.  I’ve truly enjoyed several of these blogs:

“Tigers to be Tamed” about Coldplay’s “Clocks” :: http://writersinkservi.com/2017/01/21/tigers-to-be-tam…wer-of-inference/

“4 Requirements of Song” about Dolly Parton’s “Wildflowers” :: http://writersinkservi.com/2017/03/15/4-requirements-songs/

“Riddling Allegories” with Carole King’s “Tapestry” :: http://writersinkservi.com/2017/03/15/4-requirements-songs/

“Poets & the Three Unities” :: http://writersinkservi.com/2017/08/15/poets-three-unities/

And I still love my blog about Symbolic Colors from 2016 and repeated during September :: http://writersinkservi.com/2017/09/25/using-color-symbols-writing/

My point:  Well, it’s simple.

Don’t be intimidated.

Actually, don’t let anything intimidate you.  If you’re struggling, ask for help.  If certain “people” (there’s those “**” again) won’t help, they are not worthy;  move to someone else.  If you’re not struggling, well, have fun!

And with these lessons, I won’t keep it simple, but I will tell you what you need to know.

Okay, here we go.

Blank Verse

Don’t panic.

Part One:  Blank Verse is called “blank” because it doesn’t rhyme.

See, regular poetry rhymes at the end of the line (it’s called “end rhyme”.  That’s not hard.)  Blank Verse doesn’t.

Part Two: Blank Verse has a regular beat.

What?

Regular poetry follows a regular beat:  Remember “Roses are red / Violets are blue / Sugar is sweet / And so are you.”  Hear the rocking-chair beat?

Now, I could go all “English teacher” on you and talk about pyrrhic meter or iambs and trochees or anapest and dactylic . . . but I won’t.  I will say that most people will tell you that “Blank Verse is unrhymed iambic pentameter.”  There, that’s out of the way.

All we need to know—unless we’re studying to be English teachers ~ and I worked for years with people who don’t know this and didn’t care to learn it—is that Blank Verse will usually and predominantly have 10 syllables per line.

This is how we distinguish Blank Verse from Free Verse.

Free Verse will NOT have a certain number of syllables on each line.

Caveat:  Shakespeare liked to mess with his syllables to prevent that rocking-chair beat of “Roses are red”.  I don’t blame him.  He was writing some serious stuff, there.  You have to avoid a rocking chair when you’re writing philosophy.

So, Blank Verse is different from Pure Verse because it doesn’t rhyme AND it is different from Free Verse because it will have 10 syllables per line.

Blank Verse in Practice

Now, old-timey poets working in English (they come after Shakespeare, not the decrepit ones before him, ya know) liked to use Blank Verse to give their poetry an “intellectual snobbery”.

And they wound up all their words to sound “intellectual”, too.

Here’s an example:  “Thanatopsis” by William Cullen Bryant.

If you can make it through the first 72 lines, good for you.  You don’t have to.  Basically, drop over to this link and count the syllables per line on the first ten or so lines, and you’ll see that the majority of lines run about 10 syllables per :: poetry of intimidation

You can take my word for it, if you want to.  With students, we count the syllables out for a bit to prove the point.  Invariably, one will go on looking for more or less syllables than 10 to prove me wrong and wind up proving me right.

Here’s how WCBryant is intellectual:  He says “Thanatopsis” so only a few will know what he’s talking about.  Thanatos is the Greek god of Death;  he’s the one you didn’t want touching you.  (Hades ruled the Land of the Dead;  he wasn’t Death.)  “Opsis” means “looking/seeing”.  So the poem is about looking at death.

The whole first 72 lines basically say
  1. everybody is afraid of death,
  2. we don’t need to be afraid of death,
  3. our bodies are simply manure for plants and everything that comes after us,
  4. everybody is going to wind up the same way:  dead, and
  5. Dead will look just like Life, with people of all ages and professions and economics.

It’s the last stanza that’s important, and I used to have my students memorize it:  “So live that when thy summons comes / To join the innumerable caravan….”

Okay.  Wait.  Let me not punish us all.

Here’s the nutshell:  Live your life in such a way that you are not afraid to die.  Cuz you’re going to, okay?  Okay.

Bryant takes 81 lines to say all of that.  This classic of American literature is the reason high school students hate poetry.  It’s the reason adults look back at high school English classes and say, “I don’t understand poetry.”

Well, geez, slaving through things like WCB’s “Thanatopsis”, none of us understand anything.

I Got Your Back

Not all Blank Verse is like WCBryant, thank God.

Here’s one by Robert Frost, “For Once then, Something” about looking into a deep well, trying to see beyond literally and figuratively, and being mocked for doing so but still trying: Frost and a well

And one really recent, political and accusatory, by Terrence Hayes.  I’m not talking politics;  I just want you to see how Blank Verse is still in action: His title uses “assassins”.

And from Seamus Heaney, “Storm on an Island,” (Now.  This one I like.  This one I think is important.  This is the one that I want people to remember.)  “Storm” speaks to all of us about the elementals of life that dwarf us and give us fear but which we still bow our heads and walk into.  This link provides annotations which provide an interpretation:  No intimidation

Sources

If you go looking for modern blank verse, avoid Poetry Foundation.  They have misidentified pure blank verse, and you’ll find a lot of poems that don’t fit.  PF is usually very good, but they let us down here.

And I stumbled upon a review of a book that I would like to put in my ToBeRead stack, which never seems to go down: a book examining our topic, past and present

Next blog, some Old and New Masters of the Blank Verse form.  Shakespeare, of course.  Who else?  Well, join us on the 25th and be surprised.

Poets & the Three Unities

Three Unities

Sprawling tree roots support the central tree.

Action.

Time.

Place.

Writing can sprawl into unnecessary digressions.

The struggle for writers is to keep that sprawl focused so that every element seeds ideas relevant to the theme.

When relating the story of father killing daughter, wife killing husband in revenge, and son killing mother to restore a balance, any writer might be tempted to stray away from the central storyline.  Aeschylus managed to stay focused for his trilogy The Oresteia, and he didn’t have the Three Unities to guide him.

I am tempted, just from that previous sentence, to comment that The Oresteia wiped out every family relation or that killing doesn’t restore balance to the scales of justice, even in Greek myth with its differences between revenge and justice and its taboo on kin-killing.  See?  It’s hard to let things go.  Orestes had to argue with the Furies to get them to leave him alone for re-balancing the scales of justice.  And Aeschylus took three dramas to tell that one story.

Action. Time. Place.

Aristotle laid down the law about the Three Unities.  These three “laws” help structure any writer’s work.

To create the law of Three Unities, Aristotle looked at the most impressive dramas (tragedy and comedy) and classified the reasons for their success.

The story should focus on one action occurring over a tightly controlled time frame within a closely bounded place.  For ancient dramas, this meant one conflict occurring during one day and situated in one place, such as the front steps to a palace.

The law of the Three Unities, however, is not limited to ancient Greek dramas.

Novelists are similar enough to dramatists that no persuasive evidence is necessary.  Short stories maintain a tighter control on all three elements while novels might address one single conflict (with subplots) over several days yet still in a closely-bounded culture.

The James Bond sagas focus on one antagonist to be defeated with a close-monitored ticking clock within the culture of the British spy game.

J.R.R. Tolkien’s Ring saga seems to sprawl all across Middle Earth [place] as the Fellowship gathers allies in order to defeat Sauron [action] before he becomes too powerful [time].

When poets work with the Three Unities, something unexpected and extraordinary occurs.

Frost and the Three Unities

Robert Frost’s “Once by the Pacific” presents Aristotle’s Three Unities.

Action:  God considers re-making the world as he did with the Deluge.

Place: The great ocean crashes on to a shoreline saved only because it is “lucky in being backed by continent”.

Time: “A night of dark intent / Was coming”, and it could be that the dark night might turn into an age of destruction.

The shattered water made a misty din.
Great waves looked over others coming in,
And thought of doing something to the shore
That water never did to land before.
The clouds were low and hairy in the skies,
Like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes.
You could not tell, and yet it looked as if
The shore was lucky in being backed by cliff,
The cliff in being backed by continent;
It looked as if a night of dark intent
Was coming, and not only a night, an age.
Someone had better be prepared for rage.
There would be more than ocean-water broken
Before God’s last Put out the light was spoken.

Several of Frost’s poems use the Three Unities to control their meaning.
  • “Acquainted with the Night” and “Design” are examples of two sonnets controlled by Action, Time, and Place.
  • His narrative poem “Home Burial” reads like an ancient Greek drama. Husband and wife have lost their future together since the day (Time) she watched him bury their child in the family cemetery (Place).  He cannot express his emotions;  she cannot control hers. (Action)
  • Frost’s found poem “Out, Out—” is a Greek tragedy of futility and unexpected disaster. The son is cutting wood while the sister stands close by (Place).  Since the boy does not keep close watch on what he is doing (classic hubris:  challenging Fate), the chainsaw leaps out to take his hand (Action).  His death at the end of the day (Time) with the understated line of “little – less – nothing” has all the inexplicable mystery of Doom.
  • “My November Guest” reports the Action as a conversation between a man and his love: “My Sorrow when she’s here with me, / Thinks these dark days of autumn rain / Are beautiful as days can be . . . She talks, and I am fain to list”.  The Time is the unexpected beauty of November, and the setting is the simple beauty of the land:  “the bare, the withered trees” and “silver now with clinging mist”.
  • “Mending Wall” is another unexpected use. Two neighbors are in unexpressed disagreement over the wall between their properties:  one is instinct, delighting in the fairy shifts to the rock wall, while the other is plodding logic that dislikes sudden changes.  They meet on an appointed day (Time) and repair the wall (Place & Action).

Millay and the Three Unities

Edna St. Vincent Millay’s sonnet “Time Does Not Bring Relief” covers all Three Unities.

Time does not bring relief; you all have lied
Who told me time would ease me of my pain!
I miss him in the weeping of the rain;
I want him at the shrinking of the tide;
The old snows melt from every mountain-side,
And last year’s leaves are smoke in every lane;
But last year’s bitter loving must remain
Heaped on my heart, and my old thoughts abide

There are a hundred places where I fear
To go,—so with his memory they brim
And entering with relief some quiet place
Where never fell his foot or shone his face
I say, “There is no memory of him here!”
And so stand stricken, so remembering him!

The conflict to resolve begins the poem:  her love is gone, and she must go about forgetting him so she can move on.

Time ~ Her entire existence is taken up with remembering him and their love.  Every day of her past year she has tried to forget him only to have her grief renewed:  the rainy season, last autumn, and winter have passed, yet her heartbreak remains acute.

Place ~ Typical romantic places have also served as reminders of him, therefore increasing her loss:  the oceanside, the mountains, country lanes.  We can assume the city from the “weeping of the rain.”

Left unmentioned is Action.  Since time and place have not eased her pain, the Bohemian Millay may move on to action to bring her relief.

More of Millay’s Structural Techniques

A Petrarchan sonnet without the stiff formality of the 19th century and earlier, Millay presents her mastery of the sonnet by providing rhyme we barely notice.  Only occasionally do we slow to read her meter-based lines, which lesser poets must twist to create.

Three coupled images tighten up her structure:  “I miss him / I want him” and “Last year’s leaves / Last year’s bitter loving” and “So with his memory / So remembering him”.  The first two sets are coupled together;  the last set is separated, for the couple is broken apart.

Wrapping Up

Millay constructs her poetry more tightly than Frost does, but both are masters of the poetic line reading like conversation.  With Aristotle’s Three Unities, we can see a bit of their approaches to writing.

The Three Unities become a device for writing.  Skillfully used, the audience doesn’t notice the framework for the poetic lines.

For novelists and dramatists, those Three Unities should also fade into the structure to become unnoticed.

Rhyme and rhythm help structure Pure Verse.  Rhetorical devices from Classical Antiquity structure Free Verse.

Join us August 25 for a reminder of unexpected devices that poets use to structure their works.